terms of documents, 'negotiable' means
that e.g. a Bill of Lading is handed
over/transferred in the right manner
(viz. proper endorsement) to another
person either endorsed in blank or
endorsed to a person and that person
acquires, by this transfer certain
rights vis-¿is the goods e.g. is entitled
to take possession of the goods.
development of classes of business
objects may support and have an impact
on the developments in the area of
simplification of EDI and its standards.
A business object is a true representation
of a tangible concept stemming from
real business usage.
Shipping container with frames with
wire-mesh at the sides covered by
means of a tarpaulin, which can be
dropped down to, give unrestricted
access to the sides of the container
for loading or discharging.
freight container similar in all respects
to a general purpose container except
that it has no rigid roof but may
have a flexible and movable or removable
cover, for example one made of canvas
or plastic or reinforced plastic material
normally supported on movable or removable
development and application of quantitative
techniques to the solution of problems.
More specifically, theory and methodology
in mathematics, statistics, and computing
are adapted and applied to the identification,
formulation, solution, validation,
implementation, and control of decision
of a limited range of choices or features
that is offered to a customer when
purchasing an otherwise basic standard
product and that has to be an integral
part of the product (used in commercial
operations to be performed on outgoing
goods from a production unit, both
administrative and physical, starting
at the moment forwarding orders can
be executed to the moment of actual
departure of the goods.
unit used by a single shipper to contain
one or more packages and to form one
handling unit for convenience of handling
and stowage. Dangerous goods packages
contained in the overpack must be
properly packed, marked, labelled
and in proper condition as required
by the Regulations regarding dangerous
goods (air cargo).
fortuitous partial loss to the subject
matter insured, proximately caused
by an insured peril but which is not
a general average loss. Particular
average only relates to damage and/or
expenses which are exclusively borne
by the owners of a vessel which has
sustained damage as a result of e.g.
heavy weather or by the owners of
the cargo, which has been damaged
expressed as a percentage assumed
for the volume of a compartment which
can be flooded by water after damage,
to the total volume of that compartment;
respectively the actual calculated
value of that ratio.
point value can be seen as the relative
value of an empty container of a certain
size type in a depot location. The
system serves to quantify the imbalance
costs resulting from a full container
move and are the result of empty optimisation
Point values are created on forecasted
container flows between depot locations.
They are calculated taking into
account a.o. the forecasted imbalances
plus repositioning, storage and
container costs for empty moves
and expressed in USD.
Note: In the various computer
systems point values are used to
calculate the imbalance charge or
credit for a particular container
flow. This charge or credit is the
difference in point values between
start and end depot location.
checking of goods before shipment
for the purpose of determining the
quantity and/or quality of said goods
by an independent surveyor (inspection
company) for phytosanitary, sanitary
and veterinary controls.
Presently there is a tendency by
developing countries to use the
inspection also for the purpose
of determining whether the price
charged for certain goods is correct.
invoice sent to an importer by the
exporter prior to order confirmation
and shipment to assist in matters
relating to obtaining import licences
or foreign exchange allocations, or
simply to advise the value of a consignment
so that letters of credit can be opened.
The conversion of materials
and or assembly of components
to manufacture goods, products
The total quantity of goods
manufactured or to be manufactured
in a particular period of time
expressed in quantitative or financial
terms. (The term manufacturing
is often used specifically for
physical operations resulting
in a product).
totality of features and characteristics
of a product or service that bear
on its ability to satisfy stated or
Note: The ISO9000 standards
on quality management and quality
assurance consists of 4 standards:
9000 guidelines for selection and
use, 9001 model for quality assurance
in design/development 9002 model
for quality assurance in production
and installation, 9003 model for
quality assurance in final inspection
and test, and 9004 guidelines for
quality management and quality system
elements, part 2 are guidelines
period during which an arriving vessel,
including its equipment, cargo, crew
or passengers, suspected to carry
or carrying a contagious disease is
detained in strict isolation to prevent
the spread of such a disease.
artificial inclined path, road or
track along which wheeled vehicles,
cargo and trailers may pass for the
purpose of changing their elevation
and facilitating the loading and unloading
operation (e.g. an entrance way into
a Roll-on Roll-off vessel
procedure whereby goods shipped directly
from a supplier to the customer are
invoiced in two stages: at first by
the supplier to an intermediary and
subsequently by the intermediary to
unit of measurement for the internal
capacity of a vessel whereby one register
ton equals 100 cubic feet (2.83 cubic
meter). The gross (bruto) tonnage
comprises all spaces below the main
(tonnage) deck and the enclosed spaces
above the main (tonnage) deck less
The net tonnage consists of the
gross tonnage less exemptions like
ballast tanks, engine room, living
quarters etc. The register tonnage
is mentioned on the tonnage certificate.
Authority is used as an entry point
for users to set-up links by using
some existing trusted means such as
registered letters of personal enrolment.
This registration will also form the
legal basis for the use of digital
signatures by the user, if required,
although this aspect in itself is
not key management. Once this registration
has been established, the user credentials
and his public key are passed on the
Certification Authority with a request
that a subject is interchangeable
with another subject, but which differs
physically from the original subject
in that the installation of the replacement
subject requires extra machining or
provisions in addition to the normal
application and methods of attachment.
organisation for the Simplification
of International Trade Procedures
in the United Kingdom (e.g. in The
Netherlands SITPRO is called 'Sitproneth',
in France 'Simprofrance' and in Japan
In general, a quantity of stock
planned to be in inventory to
protect against fluctuations in
demand and/or supply.
In the context of master production
scheduling, safety stock can refer
to additional inventory and/or
capacity planned as protection
against forecast errors and/or
short terms changes in the backlog.
Also referred to as 'overplanning'
or a 'market hedge'.
in a Bill of Lading signifying that
the master and the carrier are unaware
of the nature or quantity of the contents
of e.g. a carton, crate, container
or bundle and are relying on the description
furnished by the shipper.
timetable including arrival/departure
times of ocean- and feeder vessels
and also inland transportation. It
refers to named ports in a specific
voyage (journey) within a certain
trade indicating the voyage number(s).
In general: The plan of times for
starting and/or finishing activities.
'seller's market' is considered to
exist when goods cannot easily be
secured and when the economic forces
of business tend to be priced at the
vendor's estimate of value. In other
words, a state of trade favourable
to the seller, with relatively great
demand and high prices of something
vehicle without motive power and with
one or more axles designed to be drawn
by a truck tractor and constructed
in such way that a portion of its
weight and that of its load rest upon
e.g. the fifth wheel of the towing
service Bill (of Lading) is a contract
of carriage issued by one carrier
to another for documentary and internal
control purposes (e.g. in case JLB
Shipping cargo is carried on a non
JLB Shipping vessel.)
For internal documentary and control
purposes a so-called participating
agent in a consortium uses some
kind of document which, depending
on the trade, is referred to as
'Memo Bill' which will among others
Name of Carrier on whose behalf
the original document (Way Bill,
Bill of Lading, etc.) was issued.
The original document number.
The agent who issued the original
document and his opponent at the
The number of packages, weight
and measurement, marks and numbers
and goods description.
Further mandatory details in
case of special cargo.
No freight details will be mentioned
and the Memo Bill is not a contract
as intermediary between shipowners
or carriers by sea on the one hand
and cargo interests on the other.
The functions are to act as forwarding
agent or custom broker, fixing of
charters, and acting as chartering
merchant (person) by whom, in whose
name or on whose behalf a contract
of carriage of goods has been concluded
with a carrier or any party by whom,
in whose name or on whose behalf the
goods are actually delivered to the
carrier in relation to the contract
provided by the shipper or his agent
to the carrier, multimodal transport
operator, terminal or other receiving
authority, giving information about
export consignments offered for transport,
and providing for the necessary receipts
and declarations of liability.
of tools to enable simplified implementations
of structured electronic commerce
techniques such as, electronic data
interchange, electronic funds transfer,
automatic data capture, bar-code technology
and unique goods/product/service/party
set of documents, replacing the various
(national) forms for customs declaration
within European Community, implemented
on January 1st, 1988. The introduction
of the SAD constitutes an intermediate
stage in the abolition of all administrative
documentation in intra European Community
trade in goods between member states.
undercarriage with a subframe having
provision for convenient fore and
aft adjustment of its position on
the chassis/semi-trailer. The purpose
being to be able to shift part of
the load to either the king pin or
the suspension to maximise legally
permitted axle loads (road cargo).
The management on purpose of
the various origins of products
or materials on behalf of the
recipient of these products or
materials. In some industries
sourcing is seen as the change
from push to pull delivery for
a number of fast moving items.
Within JLB Shipping sourcing
is specially dedicated to the
retail industry acting as an intermediary
between suppliers and the market
with an integrated service for
e.g. supermarkets or large department
case of indirect delivery through
consolidation and if split shipment
conditions occur then each split part
of the shipment will be delivered
in a different consignment but all
consignments identified by the same
unique original shipment id.
building blocks used by business management
to define services (shipment products)
which can be offered to customers.
They describe a more or less isolated
set of activities with a standard
cost attached to it. For operations
management each module defines a combination
of standard operations that needs
to be carried out for a customer.
Note: SPM's can be regarded
as the interface between business
and operations management.
development of agreements whose purpose
is to align formalities, procedures,
documents, information, and operations.
At a national level, this would be
alignment with acceptable commercial
norms and practices, at an international
level it would alignment with identified
"best" and/or most accepted
of a cargo's cubic measurement to
its weight, expressed in cubic feet
to the ton or cubic metres to the
tonne, used in order to determine
the total quantity of cargo which
can be loaded in a certain space.
unwanted person who hides on board
of a vessel or an aircraft to get
free passage, to evade port officials.
IMO definition: A person who is
secreted on a ship or in cargo which
is subsequently loaded on the ship,
without the consent of the shipowner
or the master or any other responsible
person who is detected on board
after the ship has departed from
a port and reported as a stowaway
by the master.
Part of the total transport
chain (trade route) including
overland transport identified
by place of receipt, ports of
call and place of delivery i.e.
it has one location or an address
as a starting and or ending point.
for optimum performance in one element
of an organisation disregarding the
effects this may cause to the performance
of the other elements. In other words,
a solution for a problem that is best
from a narrow point of view but not
from a higher or overall company point
the conditions agreed upon between
a carrier and a merchant about the
type of freight and charges due to
the carrier and whether these are
prepaid or are to be collected.
Note: The so-called Combi
terms based on the INCO terms do
make a distinction what of the freight
and related costs is to be paid
by the seller and what by the buyer.
In the UN recommendation 23 a coding
system is recommended to recognise
the various items.
A shipment under one (JLB Shipping)
Bill of Lading, whereby sea (ocean)
transport is 'broken' into two
or more parts. The port where
the sea (ocean) transport is 'broken'
is the transhipment port.
Transfer of cargo from one means
of transport to another for on-carriage
during the course of one transport
Customs: Customs procedure under
which goods are transferred under
customs control from the importing
means of transport to the exporting
means of transport within the
area of one customs office which
is the office of both importation
physical unit, e.g. container or ckd
uniquely identified (for instance
by license plate) that has been provided
by the original shipper for transportation
and that should not be split during
the transportation process. A transport
handling unit can contain different
packages. (automotive industry)
of the service for movement of containers.
Note: The following type
of movement can be indicated on
B/L and Manifest all combinations
of FCL and LCL and break bulk and
RoRo. Whilst only on the manifest
combinations of House, Yard and
CFS can be mentioned.
indication whether the carrier or
the merchant effects and bears the
responsibility for inland transport
of cargo in containers i.e. a differentiation
between the logistical and legal responsibility.
Note: Values are Carrier
haulage and Merchant haulage, whilst
in this context special cases are
carrier-nominated merchant haulage,
and merchant nominated carrier haulage.
United Nations agency whose work in
Shipping includes the liner code involving
the sharing of cargoes between the
Shipping lines of the importing and
exporting countries and third countries
in the ratio 40:40:20.
UN/ECE is one of a number of Economic
and Social Commissions established
by the General Assembly of the United
Nations. Despite its name it embraces
both Europe and North America. The
UN/ECE comprises twenty nine core
member states, as well as any country
which is a member of the United Nations
and which applies under Article 11
of the United Nations constitution
for delegate status.
The aim is to advance the economic
development of Europe and associated
countries through trade facilitation
and common agreements.
collection of structured data that
is exchanged to convey information
related to a specific transaction
between partners engaged in electronic
data interchange. Messages are composed
of logically grouped segments required
for the type of message transaction
Note: A set of segments
in the order specified in a message
directory starting with the message
header and ending with the message
of Coordinated Universal Time, the
standard measurement of time.
time (UT), based on the Earth's
actual rotation, was replaced by
coordinated universal time (UTC)
1972, the difference between the
two involving the addition (or subtraction)
of leap seconds on the last day
of June or Dec. National observatories
(in the UK until 1990 the Royal
Greenwich Observatory) make standard
time available, and the BBC broadcasts
six pips at certain hours (five
short, from second 55 to second
59, and one long, the start of which
indicates the precise minute). Its
computerised clock has an accuracy
greater than 1 second in 4,000 years.
From 1986 the term Greenwich Mean
Time was replaced by UTC. However,
the Greenwich meridian, adopted
1884, remains that from which all
longitudes are measured, and the
world's standard time zones are
calculated from it.
contract under which the shipowner
agrees to carry an agreed quantity
of cargo from a specified port or
ports to another port or ports for
a remuneration called freight, which
is calculated according to the quantity
of cargo loaded, or sometimes at a
in a marine insurance policy stating
that no acts of the insurer or insured
in recovering, saving or preserving
the property insured, shall be considered
a dismissal from or acceptance of
of war or warlike operations, such
as capture, seizure, arrests, restraints
of kings, princesses and people, hostilities,
civil war, mines, torpedo's. War risks
are not covered under a policy for
marine perils and must therefore be
covered under a separate policy for
Convention for the Unification of
Certain Rules Relating to International
Carriage by Air, signed at Warsaw,
12 October 1929, or that Convention
as amended by the Hague Protocol,
1955, stipulating obligations or parties
and limitations and/or exonerations
of carriers (air cargo).
CCITT recommendation designed to facilitate
international message and information
exchange between subscribers of computer
based store-and-forward services and
office information systems in association
with public and private data networks.
mark-up language is an official recommendation
by the World Wide Web Consortium as
a successor of HTML (Hyper Text Mark-up
language) it can be used to convey
documents layout and contents from
one computer application to another.
XML is a subset of SGML.
process of maximising the contribution
of every slot, vessel, trade and network.
Basically it should be seen as the
process of allocating the right type
of capacity to the right kind of customer
at the right price as to maximise
revenue or yield.
The concept should be used in combination
with load factor management.
rate for which the carrier will undertake
the haulage of goods or containers
between either the place of delivery
and the carrier's appropriate terminal.
Such haulage will be undertaken only
subject to the terms and conditions
of the tariff and of the carrier's
Combined Transport Bill of Lading.
to simplify sorting and delivery of
mail, consisting of a number of five
digits (the so-called ZIP-code) for
identification of the state, city
or district, and the postal zone in
the U.S.A. delivery areas.