charge paid by a carrier to an agent
or to another carrier, which the delivering
carrier then collects from the consignee.
Such charges are usually for agents'
forwarding fees and incidental expenses
paid out of pocket for account of
the shipment by an agent or other
A person or organisation authorised
to act for or on behalf of another
person or organisation.
In JLB Shipping, an Agent is
a corporate body with, which there
is an agreement to perform particular
functions on behalf of them at
an agreed payment. An Agent is
either a part of the JLB Shipping
organisation or an independent
body. The following functions
and responsibilities may apply
to the activities of an agent.
of cargo, issuing quotations,
concluding contracts in
co-ordination with JLB Shipping.
Basically the agent is the
first point of entry into
the JLB Shipping organisation
for a shipper.
Booking of cargo in accordance
with allotments assigned
to the agent for a certain
voyage by JLB Shipping.
Dealing with the national
customs administration for
cargo declarations, manifest
alterations and cargo clearance
on behalf of JLB Shipping.
Responsible for timeliness
and correctness of all documentation
required, regarding the
carriage of cargo.
Taking care of all procedures
connected with physical
handling of cargo.
Managing of all equipment
stock in a particular area.
Authorised to sign and
issue Bills of Lading and
other transport documents.
Authorised to collect freight
and charges on behalf of
The agent who releases
the cargo and is responsible
for its delivery to the
Handling of cargo claims
Handling of cargo claims
as per agency contract.
Handling non cargo related
operations of a vessel as
instructed by the master,
owner or charterer.
unit load device, primarily intended
for transport by air, having an internal
volume of 1 m3 or more, incorporating
restraint provisions compatible with
an aircraft restraint system, and
an entirely flush base bottom to allow
handling on roller-bed cargo handling
document made out by or on behalf
of the carrier(s) confirming receipt
of the goods by the carrier and evidencing
the contract between the shipper and
the carrier(s) for the carriage of
goods as described therein.
trader authorised by the European
Commission (regulation 2454/93) to
receive or despatch consignments under
transit procedures without having
to present goods and documents directly
at the customs office.
general average affairs average adjusters
are entrusted with the task of apportioning
the loss and expenditure over the
parties interested in the maritime
venture and to determine which expenses
are to be regarded as average or general
letters are drawn up in addition to
a contract in order to lay down rights
and/or obligations between both contracting
parties, which, for some reason cannot
be included in the original contract.
expression is sometimes used for
letters of indemnity, which are
drawn up if the condition of the
goods loaded gives rise to remarks
and, nevertheless, the shipper insists
upon receiving clean Bills of Lading.
Letters of indemnity are only allowed
in very exceptional circumstances.
marine purposes the practice of always
keeping more than one piece of cargo
on the quay or in the vessel ready
for loading or discharging in order
to avoid delays and to obtain optimal
use of the loading gear.
method of encoding data for fast and
accurate electronic readability. Bar
codes are a series of alternating
bars and spaces printed or stamped
on products, labels, or other media,
representing encoded information which
can be read by electronic readers,
used to facilitate timely and accurate
input of data to a computer system.
Bar codes represent letters and/or
numbers and special characters like
+, /, -, etc.
protruding from the inside walls of
a vessel's hold or a (thermal) container
to keep away the cargo from the walls
to provide an air passage. They may
be integral with the walls, fastened
to the walls or added during cargo
vertical division of a vessel from
stem to stern, used as a part of the
indication of a stowage place for
containers. The numbers run from stem
to stern; odd numbers indicate a 20
foot position, even numbers indicate
a 40 foot position.
Bill of Health is the certificate
issued by local medical authorities
indicating the general health conditions
in the port of departure or in the
ports of call. The Bill of Health
must have been visaed before departure
by the Consul of the country of destination.
a vessel has free pratique, this
means that the vessel has a clean
Bill of Health certifying that there
is no question of contagious disease
and that all quarantine regulations
have been complied with, so that
people may embark and disembark.
number of railway wagons (loaded with
containers), departing from a certain
place and running straight to a place
of destination, without marshalling,
transhipping or any coupling or de-coupling
Generally this is interpreted as
a facility, function, department
etc. that impedes performance, for
example a warehouse or distribution
centre where goods arrive at a faster
rate than they can be transported
or stored, thus causing stock-piling
at improper moments or in unwanted
weight at which it is cheaper to charge
the lower rate for the next higher
weight-break multiplied by the minimum
weight indicated, than to charge the
higher rate for the actual weight
of the shipment.
business process is the action taken
to respond to particular events, convert
inputs into outputs, and produce particular
results. Business processes are what
the enterprise must do to conduct
its business successfully.
business process model provides a
breakdown (process decomposition)
of all levels of business processes
within the scope of a business area.
It also shows process dynamics, lower-level
process interrelationships. In Summary
it includes all diagrams related to
a process definition that allows for
understanding what the business process
is doing (and not how).
process of redesigning business practice
models including the exchange of data
and services amongst the stakeholders
(i.e. finance, merchandising, production,
distribution) involved in the lifecycle
of a client's product.
'buyer's market' is considered to
exist when goods can easily be secured
and when the economic forces of business
tend to cause goods to be priced at
the purchaser's estimate of value.
In other words, a state of trade favourable
to the buyer, with relatively large
supply and low prices.
code published by the International
Telecommunication Union in its annual
List of Ships' Stations to be used
for the information interchange between
vessels, port authorities and other
relevant participants in international
Note: The code structure
is based on a three digit designation
series assigned by the ITU and a
one digit assigned by the country
of registration. (PDHP =JLB Shipping
Goods transported or to be transported,
all goods carried on a ship covered
by a B/L.
Any goods, wares, merchandise,
and articles of every kind whatsoever
carried on a ship, other than
mail, ship's stores, ship's spare
parts, ship's equipment, stowage
material, crew's effects and passengers'
accompanied baggage (IMO).
Any property carried on an aircraft,
other than mail, stores and accompanied
or mishandled baggage Also referred
to as 'goods' (ICAO).
separation of one or more of the component
parts of a consignment (from other
parts of such consignment) for any
purpose other than that of presenting
such part or parts to customs authorities
at the specific request of such authorities
formation of partial vacuum bubbles
on submerged surfaces caused by low
pressure arising from a hydrodynamic
flow as a result of mechanical force,
usually associated with the use of
propellers. The collapse of the bubbles
causes surface damage and pits.
document, often required by an importer
or governmental authorities, attesting
to the quality or purity of commodities.
The origin of the certification may
be a chemist or any other authorised
body such as an inspection firm retained
by the exporter or importer. In some
cases the document may be drawn up
by the manufacturer certifying that
the merchandise shipped has been tested
in his facility and found conform
to the specifications.
certificate, showing the country of
original production of goods. Frequently
used by customs in ascertaining duties
under preferential tariff programmes
or in connection with regulating imports
from specific sources.
certification authority is the central
party of a key management system.
It provides certificates to the users
so that ¿trust¿ can be established
between different users based on the
¿trust¿ between the Registration Authority
and users. These certificates are
furthermore made available in one
or more directories which can be accessed
by all users.
A contract in which the shipowner
agrees to place his vessel or
a part of it at the disposal of
a third party, the charterer,
for the carriage of goods for
which he receives a freight per
ton cargo, or to let his vessel
for a definite period or trip
for which a hire is paid.
Organisation, whose main function
is to carry out surveys of vessels,
its purpose being to set and maintain
standards of construction and upkeep
for vessels, their engines and their
safety equipment. A classification
society also inspects and approves
the construction of JLB Shipping containers.
Bill of Lading which does not contain
any qualification about the apparent
order and condition of the goods to
be transported (it bears no stamped
clauses on the front of the B/L).
It bears no superimposed clauses expressly
declaring a defective condition of
the goods or packaging (resolution
of the ICS 1951).
agreement, characterised by the absence
of sustained opposition to substantial
issues by any important part of concerned
interests and by a process that involves
seeking to take into account the views
of all parties concerned and to reconcile
any conflicting arguments. Consensus
needs not to imply unanimity.
from either the seller/consignor or
the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder,
carrier or his agent, or other provider
of a service, enabling the movement
of goods and associated activities.
The following functions can be covered:
Movement and handling of goods
(shipping, forwarding and stowage).
Distribution of documents.
Allocation of documents (freight
and charges for the connected
Special instructions (insurance,
dangerous goods, goods release,
additional documents required).
document prepared by the shipper and
comprising a transport contract. It
contains details of the consignment
to be carried to the port of loading
and it is signed by the inland carrier
as proof of receipt.
invoice covering shipment of goods
certified by a consular official of
the destination country, and used
normally by customs or officials concerned
with foreign exchange availability
to ascertain the correctness of commercial
facility at which (export) LCL cargo
is received from merchants for loading
(stuffing) into containers or at which
(import) LCL cargo is unloaded (stripped)
from containers and delivered to merchants.
agreement whereby the shipowner agrees
to carry goods by water, or furnishes
a vessel for the purpose of carrying
goods by water, in return for a sum
of money called freight. There are
two forms: the charter party and the
contract contained in the Bill of
fundamental set of data that is needed
to convey the essential minimum detail
for a specific transaction type. Ideally
the detail should be all required
pieces of information with no, or
at least the very minimum of, options.
fundamental set of data that is needed
to establish sufficient (but minimum)
reference material to support the
maximum use of pre-code, pre-agreed
information enabling simple (minimum
required content) transaction messaging.
which are corporately owned and used
globally. The systems are managed
and controlled by a global team of
specialists. The systems are considered
as key for the general functioning
of the entire company.
main objectives of this Organisation
are to promote and protect sound Shipping
policies in all sectors of shipping,
to co-ordinate and present the views
of its members and to exchange views
with other shipowner groups.
in which the goods have been produced
or manufactured, according to criteria
laid down for the purpose of application
of the customs tariff, of quantitative
restrictions, or of any other measure
related to trade.
network planning technique used for
planning and controlling the activities
in a project. By showing each of these
activities and their associated times,
the 'critical path' can be determined.
The critical path is the series of
successive activities which takes
up most time and is therefore decisive
for the total lead time of the project.
ship on an international voyage carrying
passengers participating in a group
program and accommodated on board,
for the purpose of making scheduled
temporary tourist visits at one or
more different ports, and which during
the voyage does not normally: (a)
embark or disembark any other passengers;
(b) load or discharge any cargo.
department of the Civil Service that
deals with the levying of duties and
taxes on imported goods from foreign
countries and the control over the
export and import of goods e.g. allowed
quota prohibited goods.
required by the customs in an importing
country in which an exporter states
the invoice or other price (e.g. selling
price, price of identical goods),
and specifies costs for freight, insurance
and packing etc., terms of delivery
and payment, for the purpose of determining
the customs value in the importing
country of goods consigned to that
issued by a consignor in accordance
with applicable conventions or regulations,
describing hazardous goods or materials
for transport purposes, and stating
that the latter have been packed and
labelled in accordance with the provisions
of the relevant conventions or regulations.
document as part of the dangerous
goods declaration in which the responsible
party declares that the cargo has
been stowed in accordance with the
rules in a clean container in compliance
with the IMDG regulations and properly
total weight of cargo, cargo equipment,
bunkers, provisions, water, stores
and spare parts which a vessel can
lift when loaded to her maximum draught
as applicable under the circumstances.
The dead-weight is expressed in tons.
interactive computer-based system
which generates a number of alternatives
to solve an unstructured problem.
These alternatives are being interpreted
by the manager (decision- maker),
whereafter he decides which alternative
is to be used to solve the problem.
statement as to the origin of the
goods, made in connection with their
exportation by the manufacturer, producer,
supplier, exporter or other competent
person on the commercial invoice or
any document relating to goods.
value of the goods declared to the
carrier by the shipper for the purpose
of determining charges or of establishing
the limit of the carrier's liability
for loss, damage or delay. It is also
the basis for possible applicable
valuation charges (air cargo).
fitted and equipped for the carriage
of vegetable oil (e.g. palm oil and
coconut oil) and other liquids in
bulk. By means of oil-tight bulkheads
and/or decks it is possible to carry
different kinds of liquid in adjacent
tanks. Deep tanks may be equipped
with heating facilities in order to
carry and discharge oil at the required
temperature (JLB Shipping).
carriage of inbound consignments from
the airport of destination to the
address of the consignee or his designated
agent or to the custody of the appropriate
custom department agency when required
contract whereby the shipowner leases
his vessel to the charterer for a
period of time during which the whole
use and management of the vessel passes
to the charterer, which involves that
the charterer is to pay all expenses
for the operation and maintenance
of the vessel. Officers and crew will
become servants of the charterer.
demise charter whereby the charterer
has the right to place his own master
and crew on board of the vessel
is also called 'bareboat charter'.
conveyance of goods directly from
the vendor to the buyer. Frequently
used if a third party acts as
intermediary agent between vendor
discharge from vessel onto railroad
car, road vehicle or barge with
the purpose of immediate transport
from the port area (usually occurs
when ports lack adequate storage
space or when ports are not equipped
to handle a specific cargo).
employed mainly within the retail
sector for calculating the profit
from any given product in any given
position within the supply chain,
requiring transparency and management
of all logistic costs.
bar code in which the spaces between
characters (inter character gaps)
are not part of the code as each character
begins and ends with a bar. The spaces
can therefore vary in width, specified
of the bottom of a ship whereby a
generally watertight space is formed
between the shell and an inner bottom
placed at a sufficient height above
the baseline to allow access and to
reduce risks due to grounding or colliding.
draft of a vessel is the vertical
distance between the waterline and
the underside of the keel of the vessel.
During the construction of a vessel
the marks showing the draft are welded
on each side of the vessel near the
stem, the stern and amidships.
made by container owner and/or terminal
operators for delivery of a leased,
or pool container into depot stock.
The drop-off charge may be a combination
of actual handling and storage charges
process of transacting business electronically.
This includes the sharing of unstructured
of structured business information
by any electronic means among suppliers,
customers, governmental bodies, service
providers and other parties in order
to conduct and execute transactions
in business, administrative and other
A government order prohibiting
the entry or departure of commercial
vessels or goods at its ports.
The refusal by a carrier, for
a limited period, to accept for
transport over any route or segment
thereof, and to or from any area
or point, of a connecting carrier,
any commodity, type of class of
cargo duly tendered (air cargo).
transfer of the right to obtain delivery
of the goods of the carrier by means
of the consignee's signature on the
reverse side of a bill of lading.
If the name of the new consignee (transferee)
is not stated, the endorsement is
an open one which means that every
holder of the document is entitled
to obtain delivery of the goods.
issued by a party interested in the
purchase of goods specified therein
and indicating particular, desirable
conditions regarding delivery terms,
etc., addressed to a prospective supplier
with a view to obtaining an offer.
resources necessary to facilitate
the transport and handling of cargo.
Transport equipment does under the
given circumstances not have the ability
to move by its own propulsion (e.g.
sea container, trailer, unit load
vessel normally used for local or
coastal transport (for carriage of
cargo and/or containers) to and from
ports not scheduled to be called by
the main (ocean) vessel, directly
connecting these ports to the main
appliance made of rubber, timber and/or
rope or other materials normally attached
to a dock or quay used to prevent
damage to the hull of a vessel especially
during mooring and un-mooring operations.
or wheel-shaped bearing mechanism,
secured on the rear of the chassis
of a truck- tractor that engages the
semi-trailer king pin with a spring
lock device and supports the weight
of the front end of the semi-trailer.
screen presenting to a user the contents
of an EDI message in a manner that
is easy to use and interpret. The
form may reside on a web site or the
computer of the party viewing or completing
the form. The form may be based on
the UN Layout key (UNLK).
condition denoting that the freight
rate is inclusive of the sea carriage
and the cost of discharging, the latter
as per the custom of the port. It
excludes the cost of loading and,
if appropriate, stowage and lashing.
international port or an area within
an international port at which, crew,
passengers, baggage, cargo, mail and
stores may be disembarked or unloaded,
may remain and may be transhipped,
without being subjected to any customs
charges or duties. (Examination is
possible for instance to meet security
or narcotics control requirements.)
incurred by the merchant in moving
goods, by whatever means, from one
place to another under the terms of
the contract of carriage. In addition
to transport costs this may include
such elements as packing, documentation,
loading, unloading and transport insurance.
number of workmen acting together
especially for loading and/or discharging
operations of a vessel in combination
with the necessary gear. (On a vessel
for instance 6 gangs can be ordered
to discharge or load.)
act or sacrifice which is carried
out to safeguard vessel and cargo.
When a vessel is in danger, the master
has the right to sacrifice property
and/or to incur reasonable expenditure.
Measures taken for the sole benefit
of any particular interest are not
considered general average.
is a general average act when, and
only when any extraordinary sacrifice
or expenditure is intentionally and
reasonably made or incurred for the
common safety for the purpose of preserving
from peril the property involved in
a common maritime adventure.
issued by a competent body evidencing
the quality of goods described therein,
in accordance with national or international
standards, or conforming to legislation
in the importing country, or as specified
in the contract.
is a numeric multi purpose system,
the international convention on the
HS was established under auspices
of the World Customs Organisation
in 1983, for the classification of
goods with its six digits covering
about 5000 descriptions of the products
or groups of products most commonly
produced and traded. It is designed
for customs services, but can also
be used for statistics, transport
purposes, export, import and manufacturing.
process of solving problems by evaluating
each step in the progress, searching
for satisfactory solutions rather
than optimal solutions. It comprises
XE "A form of problem solving where
the results are determined by ex"
a form of problem solving where the
results are determined by experience
or intuition instead of by optimisation.
transport of cargo from the premises
of the consignor to the premises of
Note: In the United States
the term 'Point to Point Transport'
is used instead of the term 'Door
to Door Transport', because the
term 'house' may mean 'customs house'
or 'brokers house', which are usually
located in the port.
systematic approach applied to simultaneous
management and acquisition of equipment
and related logistics support, in
order to provide the customer with
a desired level of availability. Resulting
in an optimum life cycle cost and
to maintain this level through the
entire life cycle.
international organisation of airlines,
founded in 1945, with the aim of promoting
the commercial air traffic. Parties
should achieve this by co-operation
between the parties concerned and
by performance of certain rules, procedures
and tariffs, regarding both cargo
organisation in which the major classification
societies, among others American Bureau
of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping
and Germanischer Lloyd, are joined,
whose principal aim is the improvement
of standards concerning safety at
international standard for the safe
management and operation of ships
prescribes rules for the organisation
of a shipping company management in
the context of safety and pollution
prevention and requires the development
and implementation of a safety management
A detailed list of goods located
in a certain space or belonging
to a specified object.
Goods available for satisfying
certain demands. Inventories may
consist of finished goods ready
for sale, they may be parts or
intermediate items, they may be
work in process, or they may be
convention for the International Customs
Co-operation Council held in Kyoto
in 1974 for the simplification and
harmonisation of national customs
On 25th of June 1999 the updated
and restructured International Convention
on the simplification and harmonisation
of Customs Procedures (Kyoto Convention)
was unanimously adopted by 114 customs
This convention was restructured
to deal with computerised controls
and to ensure better co- operation
between customs authorities mutually
and with trade in general.
written undertaking by a bank (issuing
bank) given to the seller (beneficiary)
at the request, and on the instructions
of the buyer (applicant) to pay at
sight or at a determinable future
date up to a stated sum of money,
within a prescribed time limit and
against stipulated documents.
statement in which one party undertakes
to compensate another for the costs
and consequences of carrying out a
certain act. The issue of a letter
of indemnity is sometimes used for
cases when a shipper likes receiving
a clean Bill of Lading while a carrier
is not allowed to do so. Within JLB
Shipping the issue of letters of indemnity
are contrary to the company's instructions.
all costs associated with the product's
life cycle. These include all costs
involved in acquisition (research
& development, design, production
& construction, and phase-in),
operation, support and disposal of
of an empty vessel including equipment
and outfit, spare parts required by
the regulatory bodies, machinery in
working condition and liquids in the
systems, but excluding liquids in
the storage tanks, stores and crew.
group of two or more vessel-operating
carriers, which provides international
liner services for the carriage of
cargo on a particular trade route
and which has an agreement or arrangement
to operate under uniform or common
freight rates and any other agreed
conditions (e.g. FEFC = Far Eastern
Any named geographical place,
recognised by a competent national
body, with permanent facilities
used for goods movements associated
with international trade, and
used frequently for these purposes.
Geographical place such as a
port, an airport, an inland freight
terminal, a container freight
station, a container yard, a container
depot, a terminal or any other
place where customs clearance
and/or regular receipt or delivery
of goods can take place.
An area (e.g. in a warehouse)
marked off or designated for a
process of organising and directing
all the company activities which relate
to determining the market demand and
converting the customers buying power
into an effective demand for a service
and bringing that service to the customer.
realistic, detailed, manufacturing
plan for which all possible demands
upon the manufacturing facilities
(such as available personnel, working
hours, (management) policy and goals)
have been considered and are visualised.
The MPS is a statement of what the
company expects to produce and purchase
expressed in selected items, specific
quantities and dates.
document signed by the chief officer
of a vessel acknowledging the receipt
of a certain consignment on board
of that vessel. On this document,
remarks can be made as to the order
and condition of the consignment.
legal enforceable claim, which a person
who has performed work or provided
materials is, permitted to make against
title to the property or as a preferential
person in the event the estate or
business is liquidated.
cargo carried under the terms and
conditions of the Carrier's Bill of
Lading and of a tariff, it means any
trader or persons (e.g. Shipper, Consignee)
and including anyone acting on their
behalf, owning or entitled to possession
of the goods.
of recorded value (i.e. as recorded
by banks) which is a division of the
respective unit of currency.
Examples are the cent being a one
hundredth part of the US Dollar.
Note: Some countries have
minor units that are used in low-value
coinage within a country or locality,
but which are not used by the international
banking system in making formal
records of value. Examples: Belgium,
Greece and Spain.
person on whose behalf the transport
document or any document evidencing
a contract of multimodal carriage
of goods is issued and who is responsible
for the carriage of goods pursuant
to the contract of carriage.